Depth Conversion Methods and Workstation Workflows
Duration: Five days
A five-day classroom course where lecture material including case-studies and recommended workflows are backed up by a comprehensive suite of exercises designed to show how to use Petrel for velocity analysis and depth conversion to maximum effect.
Depth conversion is approached as part of the geological-geophysical interpretation process, which starts during seismic time interpretation and ends with maps for STOIIP/GIIP calculations and well planning. Tips and techniques in data QC, practical velocity modelling methods, and recognition of geological and geophysical pitfalls are emphasised. Attendees will learn how to optimally use their velocity data, see how greater control on the velocity model can be achieved by incorporating geological understanding, and appreciate the importance of their choice of method for tying maps to wells. Petrel’s use of velocity is explained, and it will be shown how to perform depth conversion and sensitivity analysis efficiently. A wide range of experience will be catered for in the course which is biased towards worked examples. Attendees will leave with the skills necessary to independently undertake depth conversions, assess sensitivity and quantify depth uncertainty.
Attendees will learn to
- Understand the geological factors influencing velocity and be familiar with sources of velocity data
- Interrogate velocity data to determine best approach to depth conversion
- Construct geologically reasonable velocity models and depth convert using well data derived velocities or calibrated seismic velocities
- Create depth maps using appropriate well tie techniques
- Adapt velocity function techniques (Vok) when geological factors (water depth, uplift etc) lead them to produce incorrect results
- Recognise when seismic imaging limitations mean that vertical stretch depth conversion is inappropriate and seismic velocities are compromised
- QC PSDM velocities and determine whether PSDM interpretation in depth is valid
- Determine the sensitivity of depth structure to velocity models and well tying
- Quantify depth uncertainty and understand its origins
- Implement these techniques in Petrel
- …and understand how Petrel uses velocity data and builds velocity models
- Understand the relevance of depth conversion in the era of Pre Stack Depth Migration
- Appreciate the impact of overburden velocity on reservoir depth structure
Geological factors influencing velocity
- Learn the intrinsic properties of rocks which influence their velocity and anisotropy
- Understand how diagenesis, overpressure and fluid fill modify these properties
Sources of velocity data and their problems
- Know the different sources of data providing a measure of velocity
- Understand the limitations of these data and know checks to help ensure data integrity
- Be aware of seismic velocity origins and velocity terminology
Synthetic seismograms and time-depth relationships
- Understand how interpretation systems use time-depth data and how this influences calculated velocities
- Learn how to optimally calibrate logs and tie synthetic seismograms for use in depth conversion – to stretch/squeeze or not?
Analysing velocity data
- Appreciate the importance of looking at all of the data, including logs and seismic velocities
- Learn data analysis techniques to determine the best approach to velocity modelling and depth conversion
- Understand the importance of scale in displaying quantitative data, and learn tips to do it right
Velocity model building methods
- Understand when one layer models (e.g. t-d polynomials, Vavg maps) can and can’t be used
- Appreciate the benefits of layering even with simple velocity models
- Know how to implement common velocity models, including linear velocity functions (‘Vok’)
- Learn techniques to calibrate and condition seismic velocity
- Reveal the hidden limitations of less standard velocity models (isochron-isochore etc)
The process of depth conversion
- Be aware of generic workflows for depth conversion
- Take away velocity analysis check-lists and good depth conversion model recording protocols
Tying to wells
- Learn strategies for tying maps to wells, and when not to use restricted radius tying
- Understand why tying in-depth, velocity or time domains is different, and how to choose
- Appreciate the implications and value of mapping Vo, learn how to do it, and when not to
- Know when it is best not to tie
Dealing with geophysical pitfalls
- Understand the basics of time migration and statics
- Be aware of the reasons why the seismic image is not a vertical scaled version of the real earth
- Understand the impact of channels and other shallow anomalies on seismic reflection times and how they limit the accuracy of seismic velocities
- Be aware that imaging limitations can cause problems with layered depth conversion models
Depth domain seismic
- Be aware of the benefits and limitations of tomographic velocity inversion
- Understand how anisotropy is used in PSDM
- Learn to evaluate the quality of PSDM velocity models and so believability of PSDM depths
- Adapt good depth conversion practice to tie depth domain seismic horizon to wells
Quality control: tips and techniques
- Learn techniques to QC the velocity model through ‘time conversion’
- Be aware of quick and effective techniques for QC’ing others’ work
- Understand the sources of depth error in the time and velocity domains and the concept of systematic and random errors
- Learn techniques to analyse errors and to quantify them
Dealing with geological pitfalls
- Understand that, even when properly implemented, there are times when linear velocity modelling methods will not work (in the presence of uplift, hydrocarbons, deep seafloor channels etc)
- Learn solutions or workarounds for when the recommended techniques need modification
Interested? Book this course today
Who should attend?
Geologists, Geophysicists, and Technical Support staff engaged in producing depth maps from seismic interpretations with Petrel software, as well as technical management and other subsurface professionals involved in evaluating and using depth mapping results.
How to book
Oil companies, service companies who are interested in running the course in-house should contact Alan Atkinson, the course creator and presenter. Individuals may also contact Rockflow to enquire about possibilities for participating in a course.
A basic understanding of geology, structural interpretation and the seismic method is required. The lectures are suitable for attendees with a wide range of experience, but some exposure to mapping and seismic interpretation is required to gain full value from the Course.
The Course can be undertaken by those who have no Petrel experience, but it is better if students have at least been on an introductory Petrel course and/or have had hands-on project experience. Those with limited seismic interpretation experience, no depth conversion experience and no Petrel experience will find the course demanding.
Ready to book, or would like more details about scheduling one of our courses for you or your team. Get in touch by completing the form.
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